This is a theoretical and practical study of the poetry of Abu Tammam. The theoretical part raises certain concepts, terms and questions related to Abu Tamam’s poetry, i.e. its essence, its relation to feeling, philosophy, and to the fictional and realistic. Besides, this study explores the rhetoric for which Abu Tammam was known in his poetry. Thus, the study sums up, in its theoretical part, the answers to these concerns that will help unveil some further issues in regards to Abu Tammam’s poetic approach with the help of modern literary criticism. The practical part of this study highlights some examples of Abu Tammam’s poetry to singles out the reflection of the cognitive culture on his poetry at the levels of religion, language, philosophy, and myth. Thus, the study revolves around two crucial questions: one, why is the cognitive culture present in the poetry of Abu Tammam? How and in what way is it present? The study concludes with answers to these questions: the poet sought in the one hand for uniqueness, and on the other hand he had a belief that poetry has a mission for enhancing his cognitive culture so that poetry can address reason and emotion.